This visual from Sylvia Duckworth @sylviaduckworth makes it easy to interpret and evaluate the change process.* These images visualize the reactions people have during the change process. If the leadership team and others working on transforming their system review this process, they can monitor and consider what needs to be done to get a derailed changed strategy back on track.
Changing or transforming any system especially in education is not an easy thing to do. If you are part of a system that most of us grew up in and are used to, it doesn’t take much to keep your school or district from moving to any new system or changing much at all. The change process is so complex that even if you agree and are working on transforming the system, there may be one piece of the puzzle that is missing that keeps change from happening.
I took each of these elements apart to go a little deeper in the change process.
What if your vision is only your vision and others don’t believe in it? If all stakeholders are not on board or don’t understand what this change means for them, then there is confusion and, possibly, resistance. The idea around student-centered learning IS confusing because multiple organizations and groups have different definitions of what personalization means.
What if we think of learning first?
Our focus for so long has been on teaching, curriculum, assessment, that we forgot why and who we do this for. We need to teach kids, not subjects. It is about each student, teacher or any learner, how they learn best, and providing a learning environment that supports their learning goals. For change to happen, there needs to be a vision with a shared belief system that focuses around each learner. We have to remember that teachers are learners too. Teachers are overwhelmed so we need to step back and see how they can have a voice in the vision for change.
It is much easier for people to continue with the status quo which some refer to as “what we do here.” Change requires people to move out of their comfort zone and try something new. Because of all the mandates, standards, tests, etc., teachers keep getting more on their plate. So some teachers push back when they hear they need to do something on top of all the other things they are doing. Or they may not feel they have the skills needed to change. This can cause anxiety and fear of this change. People may be concerned that they will be the ones responsible and accountable for what happens after they change. This is where teachers need time, training, and ongoing support so they have the skills to make this change.
There has to be an incentive to change. That means that teachers need to see the value of changing how they teach and what’s in it for them. If there are no reasons or incentives, they are bound to be resistant to any change especially if it is just adding more to their plate. Incentives also involve how you build consensus around the vision. I mentioned time under skills. Time is a big one for teachers. They have so much on their plate now but to make any changes, they need the ability to take some risks and not be punished if something they try doesn’t work. It might mean replacing what they do now with a new approach to teaching and learning. Support is another incentive. Look at asking teachers that have changed to mentor others or model what they do so teachers feel supported along the way as they change.
The idea of changing a system can get everyone excited to move it forward or just the opposite: complete resistance. Resources are the necessary things that people feel they will need to carry out the change needed to personalize learning. These resources could be physical resources like technology or funding and emotional resources like coaching and time. Without these resources, teachers and students become frustrated and have a feeling of hopelessness. They can develop a fixed mindset that change will not work for them. The change cannot happen without these resources so some teachers believe “why even attempt to make this change?” Be willing to research existing resources and identify new resources that will be needed to support the change you want to happen.
“If you don’t know where you are going, you will never get there.”
Without a clear action plan, people will experience false starts – a sense of being on a treadmill, and not really being able to get any traction or going any where. This is when you invite all stakeholders to include their voice so they have a feeling of ownership. Ask for their input and feedback. All of us are learners and to create and sustain a system that is learner-centered, you need measurable and achievable goals to meet the action plan.
Note: I first posted this article on Personalize Learning, LLC in April, 2015 with input from Kathleen McClaskey around personalized learning. I needed to rewrite and update this post on Rethinking Learning so I could elaborate about changing any system and what that means for teachers and learners of any age.
*——– The graphic at the top by Sylvia Duckworth (@sylviaduckworth) was adapted from the work of Ambrose in Managing Complex Change and from A Framework for Thinking About Systems Change by Timothy P. Knoster, Richard A. Villa, and Jacqueline S. Thousand, that appeared in Restructuring for Caring and Effective Education: Piecing the Puzzle Together. Sylvia graciously gave permission to share this chart that she created using a process called Sketchnoting. Check out her Sketchnotes at https://www.flickr.com/photos/15664662@N02/
Guest blog by JoAnn Jacobs, sixth grade social studies teacher at Mid-Pacific in Honolulu, Hawaii
Prior to entering sixth grade, parents fill out a form about their child and feelings about school. Nine times out of ten, the least favorite subject listed is social studies. When I speak to parents at open house, I stress I’m not your typical teacher. There are no textbooks, quizzes, or tests but an environment where we all learn together with respect and trust.
Our final project last year was Global Awareness which lasted from mid-March until the end of May. What the students didn’t realize was that I was leading them along the path from the very beginning. Through the use of inquiry, CNN Daily News, CBS News, YouTube, articles, and numerous other resources, we arrived at the UN2030 Goals. Instead of revealing the goals, I passed out post-it notes and asked students to list issues, be it local or world, they felt would fall into one of the UN2030 categories. Needless to say, they already knew them and realized their significance.
After choosing the issue they felt most strongly about, students formed groups to begin their investigation. One of the questions that continually surfaced was “how can the problem be solved?” We continually discussed and decided bringing awareness would be a good first step. So over the next few weeks we used the design thinking process to develop products which would bring focus to each issue.
In between the design thinking process and sales so many other things happened. Constructing prototypes, accepting criticism, deciding on a final product, defending the choice during a Shark Tank, earning fifteen dollars to purchase supplies while at Walmart, keeping a balance sheet, investigating an agency to receive profits, and construction and preparing for the final sale.
The sale took place during the middle school lunch period with groups divided up over a five day period so individual groups would have one day to explain their cause and sell what they made to students and teachers.
As within every market place, some groups had higher sales than others, but each student was successful in learning about trust, collaboration, and world issues along with how to create and market a product.
The final counting of money in the cash boxes and making donations to various agencies brought not only a sense of accomplishment but an understanding there is still so much for us to do.
JoAnn Jacobs is a sixth grade social studies teacher at Mid-Pacific in Honolulu, Hawaii. Entering her fortieth year, she looks forward to continually learning with her students and members of her sixth grade team and helping to make the world a better place.
Today is a new day. We are strong. As educators, we have a job ahead of us. Our children need us. The world has changed. You can see that just as it did with Brexit in the UK, it is changing here in the US. Many of us didn’t see it or want to see it coming. I watched the results and just kept shaking my head. How could this happen? I tossed and turned all night. I just know in my heart that we cannot have a world based on fear and hatred. We have to base our world on love and empathy for each other.
It’s our job now to fight for our kids and each other. It’s about love not hate. It’s about caring for each other and not giving up. Pam Lowe (@prlowe91) wrote a post last night on the Currency of Love and shared this quote from @robdelaney: “Sometimes the truth is so simple and delicious it glides like satin across your skin. The currency of love is focused attention.”
Pam responded beautifully with “Focused attention is what we crave in relationships. In it’s absence we feel an empty chasm, that leaves us wanting. We never want our students to feel this.”
Yes, we never want them to feel an empty chasm. It is about being there for each child, friend, or loved one. We need to be the model and not to go low or be angry. Show the world what we are made of. We are strong. Let’s make each classroom a model of a caring and compassionate environment and share each one with the world. Let’s teach our children how to respond thoughtfully and kindly and how they can become the best person they can be.
We need to remember how difficult it was for Martin Luther King, Ghandi, and others who believed that love and kindness wins out over hatred and bullying. They didn’t stop believing. We need to focus our attention on building the relationships around kindness, empathy, and love not hate.
So if a child is bullied, be there for them. Help the bully realize what they are doing and find out why they behave as they do. Help them turn around. Share quotes about kindness and love. Bring in the idea of paying it forward. Read Pam’s post and check out the resources she shared on bullying. I added a few to keep on keeping on with what you believe for all our kids. We need to teach them out to think and become self-directed, independent learners who reach their fullest potentials. We can turn this around only if we work together.
A few resources for teachers and parents:
Teaching Difficult Moments http://www.crlt.umich.edu/multicultural-teaching/difficult-moments
Parent Connection Tip on Working with your Teacher iswc.com/32kIC307910
How One Middle School Teaches Digital Citizenship https://t.co/Ga1qozsq80
Deepen Your Discussion of Document Questions http://www.ascd.org/ascd-express/vol12/1204-vilen.aspx
Teaching for Civic Discussions https://www.teachingchannel.org/blog/2016/11/03/civic-engage-academic-discussion/
I just had to add this from Lin-Manuel Miranda: Love is Love
When I think about engaging students, I think about Flow. Flow is the mental state of operation in which a person in an activity is fully immersed in a feeling of energized focus, full involvement, and success in the process of the activity.
In 1997, Mihaly Csíkszentmihályi published this graph that depicts the relationship between the challenges of a task and skills. Flow only occurs when the activity is a higher-than-average challenge and requires above-average skills.
Graph of Flow from Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flow_%28psychology%29
The center of this graph (where the sectors meet) represents one’s average levels of challenge and skill. The further from the center an experience is, the greater the intensity of that state of being (whether it is flow or anxiety or boredom or relaxation). Flow only occurs when the activity is a higher-than-average challenge and requires above-average skills.
Kindergarteners spend more time learning how to take a test than learning how to socialize. Watch children play and challenge themselves. You can see how they are engaged. Play and learning needs to go hand-in-hand. If play is purposeful and challenges the learner, any learner of any age will want to learn.
“We don’t stop playing because we grow old; we grow old because we stop playing.” — George Bernard Shaw (1856-1950)
Conditions of FLOW
Mihaly Csíkszentmihályi identified ten factors one may experience with FLOW:
- Clear goals and expectations
- Deep concentration
- A loss of the feeling of self-consciousness
- Distorted sense of time
- Direct and immediate feedback
- Balance between ability level and challenge
- A sense of personal control over the situation or activity
- Intrinsically rewarding activity
- A lack of awareness of bodily needs
- Absorbed and focused only on activity
How are you experiencing FLOW?
Think about an activity that gets you excited and are passionate about. If you love mountain biking, you probably cannot wait for that time to jump on your bike and take off. If you are working on a project that you are really interested in, you might work right through your lunch and not even know it. If you are part of a team and are valued, it makes you feel important. If the project you are working on is something you want to do or want to learn, then you spend even more time on it than you would in a traditional classroom setting.
How are your students experiencing FLOW in the classroom? Are they? If so, when?
I am a coach. I work with teachers to facilitate moving teaching and learning to student-centered classrooms. This isn’t easy for teachers especially with everything else on their plates. When teachers develop an activity that is student-centered and their students drive and own their learning, the environment changes. The noise level in the classroom gets louder. For some teachers this is bothersome, but that’s just because they are not used to it.
I call it controlled chaos and purposeful play. There’s a buzz going on in the room. When students are working in groups and fully engaged, they enjoy working as a team. Especially if each member of that team has a role and is valued in that role. I’ve seen middle school classrooms change from a group of at-risk students who are not interested in anything to learners who are excited about learning. I’ve seen them stay during lunch or after school to continue to work on projects. Now that’s FLOW!
You can see FLOW happen when students are working in groups or doing individual work. FLOW is personal. Learning needs to be personal. It really is all about the learner.
I’m guilty. Yes, I’ve done some of these things listed in this video in my presentations. Have you?
I realize now that I don’t need to look like I know everything or have to share out too much information. This video does hit home for me and other presentations I’ve participated in. I hope you watch it. However, I know how difficult it is to change something that you are passionate about and you believe is working.
I’d like to add a few tips or adapt a few tips in this video on what I am learning as I do more and more presentations.
- Simplify – Less is more!
Use graphics or visuals that capture the points you are making instead of text or bullet points. You can even throw in a graphic with a powerful quote.
- Show a video or two.
A video can provide a virtual visit to a classroom or school. Sometimes hearing from educators or learners in the field is better than listening to one person talking for an hour or so.
- Provide a handout or collaborative doc for note-taking.
If you use PowerPoint, you can create a handout with 3 slides on a page. You could create a Google Doc or OneNote that participants can copy or use to collaborate on notes.
- Build in pair/shares or small group discussions.
Participants want to learn from you but after even 5 minutes, they get tired. Break up your presentation with powerful questions or activities where participants can share with each other.
- Include a parking lot or needs to know.
Handout post-it notes and place flip charts around the room to for participants to add comments, questions, or concerns. If your group is under 50 people, consider creating a Padlet for an online bulletin board with virtual stickies.
- Set up a document with all of your resources for your participants.
Create a shared doc (Google Doc or OneNote) and open up for anyone with the link to view. Include any URLs or resources shared in your speech.
- Put yourself in your participants’ chair.
Every person in the audience is in your presentation to learn something and hoping to take at least one thing away. Do some research about your audience and who they are, what they are interested in and any concerns they may have and include those in your presentation.
- Test your presentation
Ask someone to review your presentation with you. Tell them who the audience is and the expectations for your speech. Then present it and ask for constructive feedback.
- Practice, Practice, Practice
Review the timing, check to see how much time you will need for activities, and make sure you don’t read off a script. See if you can come across spontaneously and even improvise so it sounds like a conversation.
- Video your presentation
Not sure what you look like when you present. Have someone video your presentation and then review it. Consider wearing a black outfit or one without any patterns. Check to see how you project your voice, practice with a microphone, where you look when you speak, and if you are pacing or standing still.
These are just a few tips. I sometimes forget and go back to presenting the same way with the same mistakes. I know I can learn from you. So if you have any other tips you would like share, please leave your tip in a comment below.
The teaching profession was designed around a system based on teaching compliancy. For years, students have been doing what they are told to do to progress through each grade. Teachers have been mandated to follow prescriptive curriculum and pacing guides. Teaching subjects not kids and giving grades has been the norm for over 125 years. I firmly believe NOW is the time to throw out this model and design a system that encourages critical-thinking, creativity and innovation.
What about you?
The teaching profession cannot and should not be about students or teachers following orders. Our world needs citizens who can think on their own so they know right from wrong and do what is in their best interests. Too long I have heard students ask this question: “what do I need to do for an A?”
How about getting rid of grades?
Check out Starr Sackstein’s TedTalk A Recovering Perfectionist’s Journey to Give Up Grades. Teachers are overwhelmed with all the mandates, paperwork, new initiatives, etc. I’ve heard some teachers say “just give me the curriculum to teach because I have too much on my plate.”
What about taking some things off of teachers’ plates?
Teachers are working harder now than ever. Instead teachers are held accountable for test scores and grades and are the ones responsible for everything students learn. Direct instruction is what they know as students themselves and what they learned in teacher education programs. Wasn’t technology supposed to make teaching easier? They use technology for direct instruction because that is the only way they believe they can control what is being taught. Teachers are concerned about letting go, because they are not sure they can trust students to do the work. They also are concerned that there are no guarantees that students are learning.
What if there was something you could do to change this?
Pernille Ripp wrote in her book, Passionate Learners, for teachers to ask themselves “would you want to be a student in your class?” If you say no, there are two choices:
- you can close the door and continue with the status quo, or
- you can change how you teach transforming one lesson or project with activities at a time that will engage kids in the learning process.
Now if you say yes, then share what you do. Open your door and collaborate. When you start small and include voice and choice with engaging activities, something happens to your class and you. You never want to go back to the status quo. It is about building that trust so everyone cares and respects each other.
This is what happened to me long ago and to teachers who are challenging the status quo now. As soon as I gave up control, everything just fell in place. I had to learn to trust them. I encouraged kids to pursue their interests, gave them a voice in their learning, and had them brainstorm solutions to challenges. At first, kids were tentative. They were concerned what would happen if they made mistakes or didn’t come up with the one right answer. When they realized that there didn’t have to be one right answer, they enjoyed being part of the process and wanted more. This was the fun part; they were encouraged to keep looking for more questions and challenges that made them think deeper.
What do you do when students are concerned about changing how they “do” school?
It is a difficult but crucial decision for students to take over control of their own learning. It all starts with a plan and the conversations that build a culture of learning. Sit down with each student and listen to their concerns. Listening is an art. Teachers were taught to be the ones to lecture and do all the talking. It’s not easy to stop and listen to the kids and to each other. Especially if we believe we have to make sure they get the right answers and don’t want them to make mistakes. Believe that they can learn from mistakes. We have to let go and listen, share, and learn from each other. In fact, we can learn from play. Check out John Chase’s post Free to Learn.
So as a teacher today, you probably have some questions and concerns about all of this. That’s okay. Talk about those concerns with your colleagues. Share them with your kids. When kids know that you have concerns too, then you can have those conversations with them. It’s okay to show your vulnerability. It’s about working together to create an environment that allows risk-taking so your class becomes a caring, compassionate community of learners.
We’re all storytellers. We’ve been telling stories for thousands of years. This is how we transfer ideas, connect, learn, and inspire. First I would like to share three inspirational stories.
During a graduation speech in 2005, Steve Jobs shared how he had just learned he was diagnosed with pancreatic cancer. He changed his speech so he could talk from his heart about what this devastating news meant to him. He said: “Knowing your time in life is limited, think carefully about how to spend it. Don’t waste it living someone else’s life. Don’t let the noise of others’ opinions drown out your own inner voice.” He finished with “do what makes your heart sing!”
“What makes your heart sing? Steve Jobs
The second story is about J K Rowling who saw herself as a failure. Her marriage had failed; she was jobless with a young child. Her writing kept her going. She wrote wherever and whenever she could. She submitted “Harry Potter” to 12 publishers all who rejected her. Finally one publisher took a chance but advised her to get a day job and only printed 1000 just in case the book didn’t sell well.. Rowling described her failure as liberating by not giving up because her story mattered.
“Don’t let failure be an ending. Make it a beginning.”
My third story is about Mark Burnett who at 22 came to America with no experience and very little money. He first started as a nanny working for very wealthy people and realized he could do that. He bought $2 T-shirts and used good stories to sell them for $18 and other . Within 8 years with his passion for extreme sports, he bought a British competition that became the TV show Survivor that he calls an irresistible story, a drama unfolding before your eyes. These three stories are just short examples of how stories can captivate and inspire.
“See the future better than today and make it happen.” Mark Burnett
Stories are more than just finding ourselves. When you start telling stories about you, you are “creating” yourself. We are our experiences, our history, and our connections.
Paul Zak researched and found on how the brain changes from a good story by increasing the empathy chemical oxytocin in the brain. If you start with a story of human struggle and eventual triumph, then you capture people’s hearts.
The dramatic arc can layout the personal story. Ever since young children are told their first bedtime stories, they become familiar with the dramatic arc inherent in most stories. Stories using this can be effective instruments for conveying important information and life lessons.
So let’s tell more stories in the class. Our stories; their stories. This helps build a culture of learning based on trust. Personal stories help build connections that create a caring and compassionate community.
My story: I was a dental hygienist and taught dental hygiene. Then I had an accident. I broke my leg, my neck, and couldn’t practice anymore. I became a teacher and love every moment. My good friend Sara Armstrong who is a storyteller said to me that I went from dental flossing to mental flossing.
I don’t know if you’ll remember my story or any that I shared here. But personal stories do touch our hearts more than any lecture, quiz, or test. Consider today’s kids.
How do you capture screenagers’ attention when all they want to do is to stare at their mobile device?
Stories. Have them tell their stories with their device. Share your story and model it. Write your story in a blog, through pictures, podcasts or videos. Then share it with your Personal Learning Network (PLN). Everyone loves a good story and you have good stories to tell so share them. Stories can be as small as 140 characters. Join a twitter chat like #plearnchat that I co-host or a Voxer group. I learn so much from other educators who share resources, ideas, and their own personal stories on social media.
Ted Talks is a great resource you can use with your colleagues. Check out teacher Rita Pierson’s Tedtalk about how every kid needs a champion. Her story came from her heart because she truly believed in each child.
Another Ted Talk is from Timmy Sullivan who graduated from high school this year and has been speaking for some time about “his education” his way. His voice and stories matter for kids. More kids are sharing stories on TedTalk and social media now.
Model how to do this by telling your story. Encourage their voice by starting with the prompt “imagine if…” Yes.. “imagine if” for you too.
Stories do connect us. Share what makes your heart sing. Reach out to someone you don’t know like I did 20 years ago at ISTE for a column I was writing. Many of those connections I made then last today. So ask someone “What’s your story?”