This Time It's Personal and Dangerous2013 has been an interesting year. Education is being juggled more than ever between pedagogy and corporate control AND it is personal -- for you -- for me -- for our children. The marketing strategy of adaptive learning systems is that of 24/7 services that you can access at any time, in any place and at any pace. Education has adopted this language to reduce costs with business-like customization and streamlined productivity. The expectation is for a flexible education system that will also be more efficient and cost effective. [Source: Rebirth of the Teaching Machine Through the Seduction of Data Analytics: This Time It's Personal by Phil McRae]
"The adaptive learning system crusade in schools is organized, growing in power and well-funded by venture capitalists and corporations. Many companies are looking to profit from student and teacher data that can be easily collected, stored, processed, customized, analyzed, and then ultimately resold".There's money in it, but not for the right reasons nor for the right people: our children. I read this research by Phil McRae and it all made sense. This time it is personal. Corporations are taking our educational system, shaking it up and spitting out children who cannot think for themselves. They are calling it cost-effective but actually, adaptive learning systems are more costly than we know. It is all about the data this time. This is so dangerous for our society that I have to speak up and hope you speak up about this also. We need to fight for our children and their future and their data. Framing adaptive learning systems as "personalized learning" has to stop. This image “At School in the Year 2000” - a futuristic image of learning as depicted on a postcard from the World’s Fair in Paris, Circa 1899 predicting what learning will be like in France in the year 2000. It is scary that this depiction is becoming true in the US and other parts of the world because we are being sold a bill of goods. Corporations and politicians are really good at framing what they believe we want to hear around a philosophy or concept that markets something they want to sell or use. Wikimedia Commons The idea of children having their own personal choice how they will learn is being redesigned as increasingly data driven, standardized, and mechanized learning systems. Children should not be treated like automated teller machines or credit reward cards where companies can take their valuable data. It is all about control and saving money. But who's money? Yes, technology can help personalize learning, but what technology and how? And who's data? Let's be real: adaptive learning systems are for those things that can be easily digitized and tested like math problems and reading passages. They do not recognize or encourage high quality learning environments that are creative, inquiry-based, active, relevant, collaborative, and what our children need to be global citizens who are critical thinkers and problem-solvers. We did this before. McRae reviews the history of using technology to control learning. It was all about feeding information to kids and controlling what they learned. B.F. Skinner did this in the 1950s where learning was about measurability, uniformity, and control of the student. I grew up then and remember having problems understanding some concepts. That was mainly because everyone in the class was supposed to learn the same content at the same pace -- too much content -- too fast for most of us. I was provided an "intelligent tutor" outside of the classroom and sat in front of a screen answering multiple choice questions about what I read. I felt stupid and ashamed. It still didn't make sense, but the teacher didn't have extra time to spend with students falling behind. I know I'm smart, but I felt stupid in many of my classes. If I went through that then, how many others felt like me? I wanted to give up, but one teacher and my parents believed in me. They spent time with me figuring out why I didn't get it. That's all I wanted -- time with a real person who cared. We didn't have all the technology then that we have now or I would have googled it and figured it out by myself. The problem with the technology then was that it wasn't personal for me. It was the same worksheet I didn't understand in the first place now on a screen. In the 1970s and 1980s, Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI) became the next big thing. Programs like PLATO (Programmed Logic for Automated Teaching Operations)and Computer Curriculum Corporation (CCC) were building labs for schools for large numbers of at-risk children paid with Title I money and categorical funds. I remember these because I was asked as technology coordinator and professional developer to help set them up. Schools put these labs in any area that would fit. Some high poverty schools had them set up next to heaters and most were managed by a parent or para-professional. Teachers would rotate their classes in and out every week. Kids were so excited at first to play the games that supposedly taught concepts they needed to learn. After about six months, kids got bored with the games and clicked on any keys just to get through the games. There was nothing relevant or made sense for them to be there. Kids are so much smarter than we give them credit. When they were in their classes, they felt like they could maybe ask questions about their learning. But, in the lab, there was no one or no way to question what or if that was the one right answer. After a few years, the labs were dismantled or used for other purposes. But all the money was gone so there was no one left to run the labs or train the teachers. CAI is now back as "adaptive learning systems." Some of the old programs have been repurposed with more interactivity. McRae states it as "adaptive learning systems still promote the notion of the isolated individual, in front of a technology platform, being delivered concrete and sequential content for mastery. However, the re-branding is that of personalization (individual), flexible and customized (technology platform) delivering 21st century competencies (content)." [Source: McRae's research] CCC's SuccessMaker is now Pearson's adaptive learning system. Other adaptive systems have repurposed content but they still promote building mastery with sequential content. It is similar to the old worksheets repurposed using new technology. Dreambox refers to Skinner's teaching machine and "adaptive learning as a computer-based and/or online educational system that modifies the presentation of material in response to student performance. Best-of-breed systems capture fine-grained data and use learning analytics to enable human tailoring of responses. The associated learning management systems (LMS) provide comprehensive administration, documentation, tracking and reporting progress, and user management." [Source: http://www.dreambox.com/adaptive-learning] Source: U.S. Department of Education , Office of Educational Technology, Enhancing Teaching and Learning Through Educational Data Mining and Learning Analytics: An Issue Brief October 2012, page 30 Dreambox is now framing their system as "Intelligent Adaptive Learning" and others are starting to use the term "Intelligent Tutors." Companies are creating hundreds of white papers and studies to prove that adaptive learning systems benefit our children. Be careful! Read them closely for the messages being delivered. We need to be critical consumers for our children's sake. McRae writes why we are so seduced for adaptive learning systems:
"First, it is seen as opening up possibilities for greater access to data that can be used to hyper-individualize learning and in turn diagnose the challenges facing entire school systems. Second, the modern teaching machines, and the growing reach and power of technologies, promises to (re)shape students into powerful knowledge workers of the 21st Century."As I said in my own situation, all I needed was time and someone who cared and listened to me. Today the technology is at our fingertips and children are using technology at younger and younger ages. We don't need to spend millions on these systems. Information is available when we need it now. We just need to teach our children how to acquire the skills that help them access, evaluate, and use the information they find. We cannot feed information to children from "Teaching Machines" like what was in the 1899 postcard and what Skinner projected. It didn't work in the 50s or the 90s. It won't work now. This is dangerous for our children and our society. Our children need caring and compassionate classrooms that encourage independent, creative and collaborative work. Technology is changing rapidly. We don't need to go backwards and plug our children into machines. They will do that on their own but they need guidance in a different way. They need to know what is happening with their data. Schools protect student data, but adaptive learning systems sell the data to third party companies. Consider all the free social media and other programs available that collect data from you. You probably are aware when you sign in to certain programs, they know you and your data. But you might not have known that your child's data including social security numbers and health concerns are being sold to third parties. This is dangerous! It will get even more dangerous if the government funds it and encourages the use of adaptive learning systems without some oversight. Teachers need to know how to facilitate a different kind of learning environment that is flexible, personal, and creative. Personalized learning means that learners own and drive their learning not the technology using algorithms based on performance that controls learning. Learners need to learn how to think on their own. This will not happen if adaptive learning systems control how and what they learn. It is personal now! Let's all work together and do the right thing for our children. Teach them to learn, unlearn, and relearn. Show them that they can drive their learning so they can reach their fullest potential.
Learning that is Personal and Beyond OurselvesEverything is "personalized" and kids today are so connected more than ever. Will kids be ready for their future? Read more
Visualizing Learning SpacesWhen you think of school, you may think of it as it looked when you went to school. Maybe your kindergarten looked like this... In many schools, it still does. When I see this picture, I get a sick feeling in my stomach. I remember sitting with my hands on my desk forced to keep my mouth shut. The teacher did all the talking. She only called on people who she believed knew the answer. If I answered wrong, I was humiliated. Now I did have some good experiences during my education, but seeing this configuration brings back some of those awful feelings. I even worked in schools where the desks were bolted to the floor. It really is all about control. I know that teachers can only do with what they have, but there are other options for learning spaces. Reggio Emilia is a learning approach where the environment is the Third Educator. The learning spaces are significant for the learner to learn. There is a flow and adults are observing and chronicling the learning. This approach was started after World War II in the city of Reggio Emilia for preschool and now is being explored for K-12 around the world. Learning spaces are all about design. What is design as it relates to school? Design encourages creativity and innovation. It helps you shape your ideas and thoughts. If the design is restricting you from moving or exploring, it may also restrict your thinking. At ISTE 2013 in San Antonio this year, I visited Steelcase - an interesting furniture design company for organizations including schools. They have chairs that swivel with spaces to store your backpack -- desks that move and link.
"A lot of times now, I am grabbing a chair and becoming a part of the groups, which has changed how I do things." Sheri Steelman, Northview High School teacher [source]Steelcase also had some very cool tables that group and let you connect your iPad or other tablet to a display. Other tables had places to hang small whiteboards with handles and use a slot to stand them up right on the table to continue working. I want that. Just grab and whiteboard and go. If you know me, then you know I definitely would love this... Then they took me over to an area with a couch with round tables and ball chairs. The couch has sound proofing behind it. Cool! Look at the round flip chart pages on the top of the round table that you can pull off and use for brainstorming. The ball chairs moved up and down and were just like the exercise ball I sit on while I work. I want one!! Chris Edwards, a Year 2 teacher at Chad Varah Primary School Lincoln in the UK. He shared with us (me and Kathleen McClaskey, co-founder of Personalize Learning) what his classroom looks like as part of "messy learning." As a musician, artist, and education technologist, Chris just couldn't see teaching like he was taught. His kids have iPads and different learning zones to create, design, and engage in the learning process. Check out Chris' Messy Learning website and watch for more from this innovative educator. Rosan Bosch designed the school to encourage both independent and collaborative work such as group projects and PBL. Even the furniture is meant to get students learning. Bosch says each piece is meant to “aid students in engaging” while working.
- How would you design school?
- Would you call this space where learning happens school anymore?
- What would you call it?
Why I Love LearningI used to say to my kids that "I love learning" and they would just laugh at me. But I do. I relish each new concept I learn and take apart and roll it around in my brain. I love what I do which is helping teachers develop learning environments that are engaging and full of joy. Maybe what I want is for everyone, teachers and learners, to have that same "love of learning." I read AJ Juliani's post "Why do so many bad students turn out to be great teachers?" and definitely could relate. I was just a s0-so student in high school. Traditional teacher-centered instruction just turned me off. I didn't see why I had to learn the times of events in history from the most boring teacher I ever had. We had to sit straight with our hands clasped while he talked in a monotone voice. This was 10th grade. Now really!! He destroyed my curiosity about history. I barely passed his class and felt stupid. Then in 11th grade my eyes were open to World History. I was drawn to want to learn more about the people and the times they were living in. We relived times and events and performed as characters from the past. I never had this experience before where I participated in the learning. I was even given a choice on how I wanted to express myself. This was where I got the bug for learning. I grew up in Maryland in a very nice area not too far from Washington, DC. A great place to grow up. I don't think my experience with school was that different than others my age. I'm going to go back where I lost my way -- when I was in first grade. This is where I realized I was a "bad" student. My teacher was strict and even punished us with a ruler. She would put people in groups by height, girls or boys, and even by color of hair. So that's when I lost my confidence. I was the only redhead in the class and sat by myself. Why would she do that? The year got worse and my confidence dropped farther and farther. I felt that I wasn't very smart so this is how I participated in school all the way to 11th grade until I had that great History teacher. There were a few good teachers here and there and my parents always believed in me. My mom was an artist who taught me to think outside the box and draw outside the lines. That was never allowed in my 1st grade class. I loved learning before I started school, but school made me feel like I couldn't learn. After I graduated High School (barely), I moved to California and went to community college. I felt free. I felt like me. I was told when I was younger that I can't write. But I can. I love to write. I wrote some poems for my English teacher and he asked me to read them in the quad. Everyone gave me great feedback. Then he helped me enter one of my poems in a contest. I won first prize. Then I took Anatomy and Physiology from an amazing teacher who made me want to learn everything about the body. I couldn't wait to go to his class. Then I took Humanities and Art History. I loved this. All of it. I wanted more and more. I realized and believe now that I am smart in my own way. I love to write and read and learn. I wish and hope all children never lose that love of learning, the curiosity they were born with, and the opportunities to be creative. This is why I see the importance of making learning personal for each and every learner. I love learning. Do you?
Reflections on Change and LearningI find myself in an interesting time in my life. I could retire but I don't want to. This is an exciting time where all the efforts I've taken for years to change education are starting to come together. I can taste it, smell it, and feel it. I'm working with schools around the world and the issue seems to be the same. There are a few pockets of excellence but we tend to still be embedded and entangled in a system of traditional education. The questions I get from teachers all over the world have the same tone:
- how do I give students voice and choice when I am accountable for their learning?
- how do I become a co-designer with students who don't want to be at school?
- what if I transform a lesson and it fails?
- Does the administration trust that the teacher will meet all the required curriculum?
- Does the teacher trust that their students will do the work?
- Do the students trust the teacher to teach them what they need to know?
Driving My WayI like to drive. I guess I like the control and know how I drive. I also drive a manual (stick) and love it. I was driving this morning to get to an appointment and realized that there were many cars with only one person (the driver) in the car. The system rewards you if you carpool, but many of us don't want to give up control to others especially strangers. I think I might have been one of very few driving a stick. At one point, I was cornered between a large truck and a slow car. I know you can do this with turbo-charged automatic cars, but I was able to downshift and maneuver to another lane easily. I did it safely and made it without causing any problems. Now if I had a passenger with me, they might have lost a little faith in me if I maneuvered like this without explaining what I was doing. Now why am I saying this? and what does this mean in reference to learning? When you allow someone else to drive, you are putting your faith in that person that they are a good driver and will protect you. It's about trust. It is the same thing when you are a passenger on a plane. You trust the pilot to get you to your destination. And the airline will probably not let you fly the plane -- Trust is a big part of letting go. As a teacher, you are like driving the car and flying the plane. Your students trust you to get them to their destination -- their learning goals or targets or whatever you are required to do.
"I remember sitting in one of my graduate class realizing that I already took the class with a different title. The notes were the same, the required text was the same, the professor was the same -- that is, except the title of the course. I raised my hand and asked the professor if this could be the same course we took several quarters ago. He emphatically said "NO!! and please follow the lecture."That moment was the turning point for me as an educator and why I wanted to find ways to make learning personal. I quit that masters program and signed up for another. They were all the same. As a professional developer with a little background in coaching and building communities, I was required to take a course on coaching from someone I had coached. The system just wasn't working for me. If it wasn't working for me, then maybe it wasn't working for many others. What about the classroom today. The teacher is driving and responsible for all the learners in their classroom. They are given the manual and told what to teach. Let's look at the learner today. They know how to drive their learning. They had to take control or they wouldn't have walked or talked. They had to take the first step and fall and then get up again. Their parents couldn't do it for them. The same with every word they learned. If you get a chance to watch this Ted Talk from Deb Roy about the Birth of a Word, you get it. We are the observers. His child would eventually learn how to say "water" his way. Why and when did we think we could teach everyone the same thing at the same time? Why is it that someone who can demonstrate mastery of a skill is required to learn that skill or content over again? Times are changing. Put yourself in the passenger seat of someone's car that you are not sure how they drive. Do you trust them? Put yourself in a class where you are learning content you already know and the teacher is driving the instruction. Now how do you feel?
Mindset for the New YearI have a growth mindset-- anyway, that's what I thought. I believe that anyone can grow and change. I learned that the brain is plastic -- they call it neuroplasticity. That means you can change your brain. In reading, Carol Dweck's book "Mindset" people have either a growth or a fixed mindset. Dweck states that everyone is born with a growth mindset and potential to do whatever they want to do. Fixed mindsets happen from experiences and relationships that keep them from believing in themselves. They might give up easily because, for some reason, they don't think they can do it. In an interview on Education World, Dweck discusses mastery-oriented qualities.
"There is no relation between students' abilities or intelligence and the development of mastery-oriented qualities. Some of the very brightest students avoid challenges, dislike effort, and wilt in the face of difficulty. And some of the less bright students are real go-getters, thriving on challenge, persisting intensely when things get difficult, and accomplishing more than you expected. This is something that really intrigued me from the beginning. It shows that being mastery-oriented is about having the right mind-set. It is not about how smart you are. However, having the mastery-oriented mind-set will help students become more able over time."I just read George Couros' great posts More Mindset than Skill Set and More about Mindset and Learning where he shares stories about an 82 year old woman who wanted to learn how to play the cello so she took lessons. It didn't matter that she was 82. She knew she could learn something she always wanted to do. He shared about his father who had a limited formal education, but was willing to learn new things. George showed his father using an iPad to communicate with his grandchildren. If you want to do something and you have a growth mindset, you can do it. It really is not about talent. All of us have some talents, but if we don't believe we can do something or don't believe in ourselves, we might not take the risks to change. So why did I ask about having both mindsets? I am usually very optimistic with a glass more than half full. Sometimes the glass is running over. I read Public Agenda file: a Mission of the Heart: What Does it Take to Transform a School? that talked about "transformers" and "copers." This is about leaders either being one or the other. Transformers have an explicit vision of what their school might be like and bring a "can do" attitude to their job. Copers are typically struggling to avoid being overwhelmed. They don't have the time or freedom, or for some perhaps, the inclination to do more than try to manage their situation. Growth mindset = transformer. Or does it? What if you have a "can do" attitude and believe that anything can be done, but feel overwhelmed with your situation. The situation may make you question if you can "do" something especially during a stressful time. I know administrators that are very optimistic with most activities, but have trouble coping with or managing specific situations. I believe I have a growth mindset and so do so many teachers I work with. However, some may have trouble coping in specific situations. Teachers have so much on their plates. Some days, they are overwhelmed, because there is just not enough time in the day to do everything. That's how I feel some days. It doesn't mean that I have a fixed mindset, but I may have a situational "mindset." I want to do something about this. I like that I am optimistic. I always believed I had a growth mindset, but wasn't sure what it was called before. I want to be able to handle most situations and continue to be optimistic. So instead of resolutions for the New Year, I'm looking at setting my mindset to a growth mindset. If I get overwhelmed with any situation, I'm going to pause and reflect on how I feel. I just have to focus and believe in myself. What about you? What is your mindset? Why not make 2013 the year that you can do anything you put your mind to do?
Tips to be CreativeI've been rethinking learning and see how innovations can happen. I love books and see the potential for eBooks. That is, until I learned about Richard Mason's book History of a Pleasure Seeker. Mason is a prolific author who writes his original manuscripts by hand in a journal the size of an iPad. When he saw the iPad, he visualized how his book could come to life -- not just an eBook or iBook. It took two years, but this is the way I wanted books to be. One reviewer wrote:
"The History of a Pleasure Seeker app is exactly what a book app should be! You can read or listen to the book (or both at the same time) and enjoy the little extras (extremely well produced extras, I might add) without having to put the book down."He included ways for his readers to ask him questions, paragraphs can be read to you, you can visualize text, and more. Mason is a writer and changed the way he saw how his words could be represented to his readers.
- Observe: When you are trying to come up with a new project or idea, study how others do something similar and the problems they might be having.
- Become an Expert: Focus on something you are interested in and learn as much as you can. Then share what you find.
- Step out of your Comfort Zone: Do something outside of the ordinary for you. Sign up for a class doing something you always wanted to do, read a different type of book than you are used to reading, learn a new language, go on a trip to somewhere you never thought you would go to. New experiences change your brain and might open up ideas you never thought of before.
- Be Willing to Work Alone: Sometimes working in a group and brainstorming stops the creative process. If you focus on your ideas and play with them, you just might come up with something yourself. Then share it.
- Play and Have Fun: Balance in your life is good for you. If you only work all the time, you will start resenting what you are doing. If you stop and play, you can come back refreshed and maybe have new ideas to work on.
- Daydream: It is amazing how the mind works. It doesn't stop even when you sleep. Take a nap in the middle of the day. Pause and reflect on what you have been doing. Then imagine things that are just almost impossible.
- Reflect: Keep a journal or write a blog. You never know what ideas come to you as you start reflecting on your thinking. Then share your ideas in social media. It might be interesting to see if any of your ideas are retweeted.
- Share your Ideas: If you come up with something novel, share it. Find others who will give you constructive feedback. They may give you ideas that go in a completely different direction that will make your ideas even better. You may get ideas that will not help you at all but confirm the direction you are going.
- Challenge Yourself: Sometimes you are onto something and just keep doing it because you started it. Stop! See if this direction is going to work. Maybe you need to stop and start a new project or idea and put that other idea to rest for a little to come back to later.
- Express Yourself: Take a break to sing a song, dance a dance, or draw a picture. If that doesn't get you going, then just get up and move. Go for a walk. Your brain works best if you move and stimulate both sides of your brain.
Didn't we do this already?It's Sunday and a great time to reflect on the last week. All I can say is that it was a whirlwind. Working 12-14 hours every day on Race to the Top proposals, refining our process, talking to different groups about what is and what isn't personalized learning. The talk always goes back to technology.
It's not about the technology. It's about the philosophy you embrace around personalizing learning.If it's all about the learner and starting with them, then everything about teaching and learning changes. Technology supports personalizing learning but should not be the focus. Just putting technology in teachers' and learners' hands doesn't mean they know how to personalize learning. I remember the early days of technology in schools. I believe the late 80s and early 90s, schools built labs called CAI (Computer Assisted Instruction) such as Computer Curriculum Corporation, Success Maker and others. As a technology consultant during those times, I was asked to help build those labs. Most of these labs were built in high poverty schools in rooms that weren't made for computers. Even the electricity in some of these older buildings couldn't handle the capacity. They would string together extension cords from other classrooms and hold them in place with duct tape. In some rooms, we had to step over the cord that was 2 feet high. There were some rooms where they moved the computers next to the heaters. Actually, that didn't matter, because the heaters didn't work. I needed the work at that time, and that's where all the money was going. One lab with 50 computers and the software took all the technology budget. There was no money left for training. Only enough to train a paraprofessional who managed the lab. There was no integration with any curriculum in the classrooms. I observed these labs. Kids loved them in the beginning because it was new, interactive, and included games. They loved the idea of playing in school. The paraprofessionals collected the data and shared with the administration. Scores were going up. The kids rotated through the lab once or twice a week. But after about six months, kids started talking about how boring it was. One third grade told me that it didn't matter how he answered the questions so he just hit any key to make it go to the next screen. Scores were at a plateau then dropping. Dropping all over. All the labs. Everywhere. Few years later, the labs were changed. They took off the headphones and brought in technology teachers. Teachers with credentials. Only issue I saw was that they were prep teachers. This meant that there tended to be very little integration of what was happening in the classroom to what was happening in the labs. I know so many of these fantastic computer teachers who did amazing projects. When I was asked to come in, work with the computer teachers, and help integrate technology into the classrooms. Classroom teachers were so busy teaching the curriculum that they didn't have time or the energy to take the work in the lab and connect it to the classroom. So once again, the work in the labs stood alone and was mostly focused on building isolated technology skills. But there were some amazing computer teachers and librarians who found ways to integrate the skills with projects happening in the classroom. So now fast forward to today and learning labs to support blended learning rotations. The labs look similar to the CAI of the past and, yes, the scores are improving. But the real learning that is needed seems to be lost. In some of these environments, the student to teacher ratio has increased because the computers "individualize" the student's learning and they don't need as many teachers. Maybe that's how or why schools are looking at this solution -- to save money. Based on algorithms and data, teachers keep track of performance and work with individual students to respond to intervention -- to increase scores based on standardized tests. This may sound good to some people, however, to prepare our children for the global workforce, they need different skills then they acquire sitting in front of computers like this. It just cannot be about the scores. The skills needed for today's jobs include:
- collaboration and teamwork
- creativity and innovative thinking
- choosing and using the appropriate resources for a task
- building a network of learners locally and globally
- learning how to learn, unlearn, and relearn